Quantum cloud computing is a type of computing that leverages the principles of quantum physics to solve complex computational problems faster and more efficiently than traditional computers. Quantum computers come in different forms such as quantum annealers, analog quantum simulators, and universal quantum computers. While quantum annealers are not as powerful as other types of quantum computers, they are well-suited for solving optimization problems, while analog quantum simulators excel in solving physics and biochemistry problems.
Universal quantum computers, on the other hand, are the most powerful type and can potentially access up to 1 million qubits, which are the basic units of quantum information. However, building a universal quantum computer is challenging, and the current technology can only access around 100 to 400 qubits.
Quantum cloud computing offers a way to access the power of quantum computers without the need to purchase and maintain the complex physical infrastructure of these machines. Instead, users can leverage cloud-based quantum computing services offered by companies like IBM.
The hardware systems of quantum computers are incredibly complex and large, roughly the size of an average car. These systems consist of cooling mechanisms to ensure that the superconducting processor remains at the ultra-cold ideal operating temperature. Superfluids work to super-cool the system, while superconductors form a Josephson junction to carry charges through quantum tunneling. Qubits facilitate the control of behavior and the relay of information.